CKI03340 Ajidaseṇa – Mata, Swāt – gold sheet (year 4)

This gold sheet from Swāt was discovered in a stone pot.  Tatsuzo Kaku, an antiquities dealer from Tokyo, reported on the circumstances of the find.  “I acquired some time ago a reliquary of grey shale found during a search in Mata, Swât region, Pakistan. This reliquary contained a large number of pearls, precious stones and gold and silver flowers; A 13 x 10 cm cotton fabric. with embroidery depicting the three jewels; a gold plate 11 x 4 cm. with a seven-line kharośthi inscription.”  This outline of the circumstances of the find and photographs of the reliquary, its contents and the inscribed gold sheet were provided to Fussman who published the initial edition in 1986.

Conventional Name Ajidaseṇa Gold Sheet | Findspot Pakistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Swāt – Mata | Archeological Report: Fussman 1986 | Item Rectangular Gold Sheet | Surface Recto | Dimensions Height: 4cm, Width: 11cm | Date Ajidaseṇa 4 | Collection Hirayama Ikuo Silk Road Museum: 101740 | Current Location Hokuto, Japan | Language/Script Gāndhārī/Kharoṣṭḥī

Content Summary

King Ajidaseṇa establishes relics of the completely enlightened and perfect Lord in a previously unestablished stupa.  Past, future and present Buddhas, disciples of the Buddha and the kings parents are honoured.  This serves for the elimination of suffering, and for nirvana.

Previous Editions

  • Fussman, Gerard. 1986. “Documents épigraphiques kouchans (IV) : Ajitasena, père de Senavarma.” Bulletin de l’École française d’Extrême‐Orient 75: 1–14
  • Baums, Stefan. 2012. “Catalog and Revised Texts and Translations of Gandharan Reliquary Inscriptions.” In: David Jongeward, Elizabeth Errington, Richard Salomon and Stefan Baums, Gandharan Buddhist Reliquaries. Gandharan Studies, Volume 1, Seattle: Early Buddhist Manuscripts Project. 209-11


Research on this edition and production of the digital edition was completed with the generous support of the Prakaś Foundation.  The transliteration, translation, chāyā and glossary have been reviewed by Mark Allon and Stephanie Majcher.

Digital publishing by Ian McCrabb

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Avadānaśataka (ed. Speyer 1906–1909)
Burmese (Chaṭṭhasaṅgāyana) edition
Sri Lankan (Buddha Jayanti Tipiṭaka Series) edition
Catuṣpariṣat-sūtra (ed. Waldschmidt 1952–1962)
European (Pali Text Society) edition
Fobenxing ji jing (T 190)
Mahāvastu-avadāna (ed. Senart 1882–1897)
Saṃyukta-āgama (T 99)
Saṅghabhedavastu (ed. Gnoli 1977–1978)
Thai (King of Siam) edition
Taishō 大正 edition