|Martha of Bethany||generic deities, spirits, mythological figures|
"in the Magdalene chapel fresco, Martha's role in the conversion is made very clear through the felicitous invention of having her lead her sister up the steps toward the seated figure of Christ at right" (Witcombe 2002, p. 281)
"here, Mary Magdalen is literally brought to Christ and converted through the intercession of Martha. It is tempting to suggest that this unusual scene deliberately evoked an actual event in which the courtesan who commissioned the chapel was brought to Christ in SS. Trinita through a similar intercession. In the sixteenth century, the female members of important families took on active roles in various charitable activities, which included assisting directly in the conversion of prostitutes." (Witcombe 2002, p. 281)
|Mary Magdalene||generic deities, spirits, mythological figures|
"It is tempting to suggest that this unusual scene deliberately evoked an actual event in which the courtesan who commissioned the chapel was brought to Christ in SS. Trinita through a similar intercession. In the sixteenth century, the female members of important families took on active roles in various charitable activities, which included assisting directly in the conversion of prostitutes." (Witcombe 2002, p. 281)
|Jesus Christ||deities, spirits, mythological figures, historical persons|
"In the story told by Luke, the unnamed sinner (Mary Magdalen) has her penitential actions rewarded as Christ says to her, 'Your sins are forgiven' and 'Your faith has saved you; go in peace'." (Witcombe 2002, p. 282)
|Bejewelled Headdress||head band|
"...two principal fields of discourse in which contemporary observations on the luxury attire of courtesans were placed: those of social status and of sexuality. According to the former, luxury goods served to elevate prostitutes above their social origins, permitting them to blur social boundaries that should have demarcated them from honest noblewomen. According to the latter, such goods functioned to draw attention to their beauty, heighten their allure and provoke men's lusts." (Storey 2005, p. 647)
Mary Magdalene's elaborate coiffure and jewelled headband are contrasted with Martha's simple cloak, suggesting that Mary Magdalene may have been modelled upon the Chapel's patron - a famous courtesan.
|Martha's gaze||figure: some general features|
Martha is an intercessor between the viewer and the figure of Mary Magdalene. Her intent gaze is connoting Magdalene's centrality and her importance in the commission.
|Stairs||architectural elements, built environment|
"in the Magdalen Chapel fresco, Martha's role in the conversion is made very clear through the felicitous invention of having her lead her sister up the steps toward the seated figure of Christ at right." (Witcombe 2002, p. 281)
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Avadānaśataka (ed. Speyer 1906–1909)
Burmese (Chaṭṭhasaṅgāyana) edition
Sri Lankan (Buddha Jayanti Tipiṭaka Series) edition
Catuṣpariṣat-sūtra (ed. Waldschmidt 1952–1962)
European (Pali Text Society) edition
Fobenxing ji jing (T 190)
Mahāvastu-avadāna (ed. Senart 1882–1897)
Saṃyukta-āgama (T 99)
Saṅghabhedavastu (ed. Gnoli 1977–1978)
Thai (King of Siam) edition
Taishō 大正 edition