"Population registers from the middle of the 1840s counted seven thousand yujo in Yoshiwara and about a thousand 'serving girls' (meshimori onna) in post stations on the city's outskirts, yielding a total of around eight thousand officially recognized prostitutes." (Stanley 2012, p. 2)
"as the sex trade began to elude official control, prostitutes became products circulating within a market rather than subjects with fixed places in an orderly realm, and it became more difficult for them to rely on their standing within the status system to demand benevolence and protection. Some were indeed liberated by the proliferation of opportunities to work in prostitution, which allowed them to escape impoverished families, migrate to more prosperous areas, and pursue social mobility." (Stanley 2012, p. 11)
|Sago palm tree
|other architectural elements
"Regardless of gender, late Edo period travelers exploited the bodies of prostitutes as a way of seizing and taming the unknown, and did so even without needing actual intercourse." (Nenzi 2008, p. 176)
"To the erotic traveler, interaction (and intercourse) with local prostitutes served a purpose similar to what lyrical or historical recollections did for the educated and what the acquisition of material objects did for other wayfarers in the age of commercialism—it was a way of evaluating the worth, sampling the flavor, and appropriating the essence of an unfamiliar space." (Nenzi 2008, p. 167)
|Stack of mattresses
"In another wing of the inn the girls are preparing for work. As Konno Nobuo observed, 'the folded mattresses in the room tell in an intriguing and mysterious way what the function of these inn attendants really was.'" (Nenzi 2008 p. 175)
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Avadānaśataka (ed. Speyer 1906–1909)
Burmese (Chaṭṭhasaṅgāyana) edition
Sri Lankan (Buddha Jayanti Tipiṭaka Series) edition
Catuṣpariṣat-sūtra (ed. Waldschmidt 1952–1962)
European (Pali Text Society) edition
Fobenxing ji jing (T 190)
Mahāvastu-avadāna (ed. Senart 1882–1897)
Saṃyukta-āgama (T 99)
Saṅghabhedavastu (ed. Gnoli 1977–1978)
Thai (King of Siam) edition
Taishō 大正 edition